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Productivity and irrigation requirements of halophytes grown with seawater in the Sonoran Desert. After his Ph. He has published more than 20 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 4 book chapters. He has also edited a volume which is in press with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different plants mulberry, pea, Indian mustard under environmental stress.
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Read this book on SpringerLink. Recommended for you. PAGE 1. For all that was stated above, trehalose is one of the most studied osmoprotectants and in recent years there has been a growing interest in trehalose metabolism as a means of engineering stress tolerance in crop plants [ ]. Several experiments have been conducted to obtain transgenic plants over-expressing genes codifying enzymes of the trehalose biosynthetic pathway of E.
Additional, attempts have been made using an alternative approach: the inhibition of the expression of trehalase gene. Those experiments and their main results are summarized in Table 1. The previously mentioned genetic engineering obtained a variable degree of success. Generally speaking, transgenic plants were found to have higher tolerance than controls to some form of water stress imposed, following in most cases, confirmed trehalose accumulation.
Albeit such fact, trehalose engineered plants frequently had altered phenotypes, particularly dwarfism and leaf abnormalities.
Abiotic Stress Responses In Plants Metabolism Productivity and Sustainability
Such fact was particularly true for the first transformation events in which genes of microbial origin were used. Later events, in which endogenous or plant origin genes were used seem to counter that tendency [ , ]. Genetic engineering of plants with trehalose biosynthesis genes seems therefore to be of extreme pertinence to the increase of abiotic stress tolerance in plants, particularly plants of agricultural importance such as cereals and legumes. Polyamines PAs are small low-molecular-weight , positively charged, aliphatic amines that are found in all living organisms.
The major forms of PAs are putrescine Put , spermidine Spd and spermine Spm , although plants also synthesized a variety of other related compounds. Arginine Arg and ornithine Orn are the precursors of plant PAs. In animals and fungi Put is synthesized primarily through the activity of ODC while in plants and bacteria the main pathway involves ADC. Polyamines levels in plants increase under a number of environmental stress conditions, including drought and salinity [ - ].
Several biological roles were proposed for polyamines action in stress situations; PAs could act as osmoprotectants, as scavengers of active oxygen species AOS or by stabilizing cellular structures, such as thylakoid membranes [ , , ]. The first reports of transgenic approaches using genes responsible for PA biosynthesis were conducted in two species, tobacco and rice [ - ].
Recently, new insights into the role and regulatory function of polyamines in plant abiotic stress tolerance have been achieved, with several abiotic salt, drought, freezing, heat stress tolerant transgenic plants overproducing polyamines being described in the following reviews [ , - ].
Plants respond to changes in water status by accumulating low molecular-weight osmolytes including PAs.