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It is 'a perspective on critical scholarship: a theory and a method of analysing the way that individuals and institutions use language' Richardson, , p 1—2. This shows that CDA has taken as its subject the study of the intertwined links between language use and social power. Critical discourse analysts offer interpretations [and explanation] of the meanings of texts rather than just quantifying textual features and deriving meaning from this; situate what is written or said in the context in which it occurs, rather than just summarizing patterns or regularities in texts; and argue that textual meaning is constructed through an interaction between producer, text and consumer rather than simply being read off the page by all readers in exactly the same way , p This constructivist approach of CDA asserts that meaning in discourse hides in or lies behind the words the language.

Richardson writes, 'CDA argues that textual meaning is constructed through an interaction between producer, text and consumer that rather than simply being read off the page by all readers in exactly the same way' , p Such a view shows that language is constructive, and thus it draws a discourse that shapes images and representation of social actors.

In this respect, to extract the actual meaning, we should be critical. That is, there should give more explanations and state reasons why the discourse is like this rather than just interpretations of texts or just identifying and counting features and types of discourse. KhosraviNik , p 5 points out that 'a critical analysis would consider a systematic description of a discourse'. This includes description of the characteristics of the language in a text as merely the first though essential level of analysis and would call for going beyond this and explaining why and with what consequences the producers of a text have made specific linguistic choices or have avoided doing so among several other options that a given language may provide.

Critically, the analysis targets the discursive practices constructed and presented in a group of processes of news production and consumption and the larger context that constructs the discourse s. This means that we should ask that why is the discourse constructed or the representation of social actors like this see Fairclough, In this light, my critical analysis of war reporting looks for absences and presences in the sampled data; the sample is chosen systematically and the analysis points to a context of the findings by referring to ideological and political factors behind the war coverage of the Gaza War of — see section Factors influencing War reporting of the Gaza War of — From a critical scholarship perspective, CDA essentially stems out from the premise that language is a social and practical construct which is characterised by a symbiotic relationship with society.

In this context, Fairclough and Wodak , p — suggest principles for CDA summarised briefly in eight points see also Titscher et al. Within these principles and aims, CDA is used to examine the representation of social actors Israeli and Palestinian in the discourse of four influential and international US and UK newspapers in the coverage of the Gaza war of — see section Data collection and sampling: the selected newspapers. It highlights the linguistic features and discourse practices motivated by media producers in their representation of the social actors.

Namely, how these manipulate the cognition and knowledge of the target audiences when reporting war events. CDA then examines ideological stances or implications in the press discourses on the Gaza war of — Accordingly, some power relations are sustained ultimately in the interplay between media, war and language use as explained in the following section. Discourse in media consists of both texts news stories relatively , and the processes to build and produce the texts.

Discourse in media obviously reflects ideological interests and stances of those in powerful positions, i. Fowler, ; Fairclough, , , ; Van Dijk, , a , b ; Richardson, In this context, Fairclough , p 40 considers media discourse as a 'one-sided' event that has a sharp discerned division between producers and interpreters. That is, one crucial function of media discourse is to communicate between two domains: the public and the private concerning the temporal setting of media properties.

Media bring news about various issues, e. In this paper, I focus on how the selected newspapers cover the events of the Gaza war of — and bring them to their readers. Within these texts, discourse is interlinked with and draws a representation of social actors. Representation depends on specific perspectives from which social actors are constructed. Wenden , p 90 explains that representation refers to the language used in a text or talk to assign meanings to groups and their social practices, to events, and to social and ecological conditions and objects in discourse analysis e.

Investigating Media Discourse, Domains of Discourse by Anne O'Keeffe | | Booktopia

This paper refers representation to the process of meaning production through combination of texts. Accordingly, meaning is constructed by linguistic representation in news media. Representation of social actors relates them to specific behaviours and attitudes, e. These particular representations of individuals or groups in media are linked to certain ideologies see Chiluwa, , p One can posit that ideology underlines any form of the linguistic expression in a text, a sentence or paragraph.

Androutsopoulos , p points out that researchers from sociolinguistics, language ideology and media discourse all 'agree on the potential of discourse in mainstream media to shape the language ideologies of their audience, that is, their belief, or feelings about language as used in their social world'. He further suggests that 'language ideologies are not neutral or objective, but serve individuals or group-specific interests, that is, they are always formulated from a particular social perspective and have particular referents and targets' , p In this regard, this paper is based on the premise that linguistic choices in texts carry ideological meaning s.

For example, such an ideological process may control the general point of view of the Gaza war of — The interplay among discourse, media, representation and ideology in war coverage makes them components in the process of building news especially when war is considered as an international crisis and is changed from inter-state to intra-state or vice versa see Amer, and Connelly and Welch, , p In the next sections 4 and 5, I discuss the concept of war reporting in international news.

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Reporting wars in media is an essential resource for journalism and readers. This paper considers war reporting as.

Simply, this multi-function task implies reporting and covering the military actions. Doing such a task requires the journalists covering war s to be prepared to gather information in order to keep the local and international audiences informed of the war events in an objective way of reporting.

The task is multi-functional in terms of the information they provide on the war events. International news in this article means mainly the news published by newspapers that have a wide readership. For this vagueness, this paper focuses mainly on the American and British press as international press. They are both published in the English language, which represents the most widely used language all over the world. This fact represents a reason why the American and British press are international.

In this section, I show some similarities and differences between the US and UK media in general and their involvement in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. Both media give their audiences in the USA and the UK a wide range of views, coverage, reports and representations of the same war events and actors.

Discourse: Definition and Examples

However, claiming of similarities in attitudes towards international crises, e. The US and the UK have democratic governmental systems that can provide good backgrounds and contexts for comparative study in media. The US and the UK are different in some points. First, both countries have different cultures and political environments that influence how citizens deal with and view various issues related to society and events around the world.

Domain of Discourse

In consequence, this difference leads to various notions of media professionalism and delineates the basic philosophies of the role of media in each society, and their media dealing with and covering international issues. Second, the difference is in the distribution and size of readership.

Critical Literacy and Critical Discourse Analysis

Tunstall , p 7—11 explains that the British press mostly is based in London; which is the home of the largest national newspapers in Western Europe. UK press enjoys readership very much along social class lines. It is known internationally for its tabloid newspapers see also Williams, , p — In the US, the press is 'predominantly regional and, with a few exceptions, contains regional monopolies which are not subject to the same competitive pressures' Goddard, Robinson and Parry, , p Khoury-Machool , p 6 claims that 'media coverage of the conflict remains a continual site of struggle, with both parties accusing the media of bias toward the opposition'.

Kamalipour , p 38—40 explains some reasons contributing to the Palestinian image in the US media. In contrast to the Palestinian image in US media, the Israelis have a different image. El-Bilawi , p explains, Israel 'has already poured hundreds of millions of dollars into funding for producing information marketed to the outside world; in particular, they have used the media in the United States effectively over a long period of time'.

UK media has paid particular interests to the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. It can be argued that the UK is responsible for the catastrophe that happened to the Palestinians in which has still affected the whole situation during the on-going Israeli—Palestinian conflict see Philo and Berry, and British media represent the Palestinians in a negative image in their conflict with the Israelis see a study by Philo and Berry, This short synopsis of differences and involvement of the American and British press in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict leads to possible assumptions that both the US and UK media provide different coverage of events around the world.

Also, the US and UK press give an interest and prominence to the international political news such as wars and conflicts in the Middle East. This is the core point in this article. The news from the Gaza Strip is considered to be foreign and international for the selected newspapers as we have already seen in the previous section. In this regard, this study aims to answer the following broad question:. The study intends to answer this broad question by providing answers to the following secondary questions:.

RQ2 How are the representational categories used to construct the social actors in news stories and editorials? For answering the research questions, the study applies certain procedures to collect and analyse the sample data. The selection is based on the large circulation in their countries and their popularity around the world, and this makes them international.

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The selected newspapers are also chosen for their political orientation and ideological stances, i. They are available at the research engines: LexisNexis Footnote 4 and Microfilm. The four selected newspapers are considered elite and prominent publications on the international level. The paper follows a purposive sample that reflects and supports the purpose of examining and analysing the data.

Seale , p explains that when using purposive sampling, items are 'selected on the basis of having a significant relation to the research topic'. Purposive sample seeks to be 'reflective if not strictly representative of the population'. The sample arguably represents the texts of the four selected newspapers from which it is chosen systematically.

The sample consists of hard news presented in news stories. From these news stories, I selected 40 news texts based on systematic criteria. News stories are published Footnote 6 on homepages, news pages and international pages of each newspaper.

These pages are the relevant pages to the news stories published on wars, conflicts or international issues, and they are related to the field of the study. That is, the choice excludes the Op-Ed and commentary articles. News stories cover the Gaza war of —, and excluding the news which just mentions war without focusing on it. The number of words of the report, and this is done by calculating the average of words of news stories according to each newspaper because the word numbers of news stories are different in the newspapers.

The calculation is done only on the news stories that match the previous two points of the criteria. Based on these criteria, ten news stories are selected from each newspaper that approximate the average. That is, five news stories with more words than the average, and five news stories with less words than the average are chosen in consecutive order. This means 40 news stories are selected systematically in purpose to represent all data published on the Gaza war in the specified period. These criteria are used only to choose the representative sample, and specify the news stories.

The methodological framework utilises a socio-semantic inventory systematically to show how the social actors are represented in the texts. It is presented as a 'pan-semiotic' system for doing critical analysis of verbal—visual media texts Van Leeuwen, , p The inventory has ten categories. However, to examine linguistic features and discursive practices implied in the body texts of the sample news stories, the analysis of representation of social actors in this paper employs six categories as we can see below.

I choose these representation categories see also Farrelly, because they are the most suitable, relevant and applicable processes to examine how the social actors are represented. Social actors are mentioned not immediately in the activity but somewhere in the text. Role allocation distinguishes between activated and passivated roles allocated with social actors.

Discourse: Definition and Examples

Activated roles mean representing the social actors as active and dynamic in the activities. Passivated roles mean social actors are presented as undergoing the activity object or at receiving end of the activity in the text. Genericisation and specification indicate how the authors of texts use either generic reference or specific reference to the social actors. Specific reference refers to 'identifiable' individuals Van Leeuwen, , p This means they are real people living in a real world. Individualisation and assimilation are strict parts of specification of social actors.

This means in specification, the social actors are either specified as individuals or as a group of participants. However, in this category the main emphasis is on the social actors as single entities. Assimilation specifies social actors as a group of participants. According to Van Leeuwen , assimilation can be classified as aggregation or as collectivisation.