e-book Meanings and Motivation in Education Research

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Browse by Genre Available eBooks Nona Lloyd Your opinions matter! Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Motivation in Learning 1. What is motivation and motivational theory? Why do we need motivated students? Motivated students will eventually become entrepreneurs or work for an employer.

These motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive Lindner, How do we motivate our students?

Research show that setting objectives is an effective way of helping students learn and recall information. It is important for students to set not only long term goals of the project, but the short term goals as well. Learning must be rewarding, learner much feel skill is useful, and get appropriate feedback and reinforcement without over patronizing. Variability 2. Humor 3.


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Concreteness 4. Conflict 5. Inquiry 6. Participation ttention elevance 1. Experience 2. Present worth 3. Future usefulness 4.

Motivating Students

Matching 5. It was all acceptable, but not much more than that. And Zoey: she was quite a case! I never knew whether to laugh or cry about her. So she was easily distracted, and that cut down on getting her work done, especially about her journal entries. What really saved her—what kept her work at a reasonably high level of quality—were the two girls she ended up chatting with.

The other two were already pretty motivated to do a lot with the assignment—create fine-looking bug collections, write good journal entries, and make interesting oral presentations. So when Zoey attempted chitchat with them, the conversations often ended up focusing on the assignment anyway!

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She had them to thank for keeping her mind on the work. We call these and their associated energizing and directing effects by the term motivation or sometimes motivation to learn. As you will see, differences in motivation are an important source of diversity in classrooms, comparable in importance to differences in prior knowledge, ability, or developmental readiness. It is only a sign that students live in a society requiring young people to attend school.

Meanings and Motivation in Education Research – Bóksalan

Somehow or other, teachers must persuade students to want to do what students have to do anyway. Like motivation itself, theories of it are full of diversity. For convenience in navigating through the diversity, we have organized the chapter around six major theories or perspectives about motives and their sources. We call the topics 1 motives as behavior change, 2 motives as goals, 3 motives as interests, 4 motives as attributions about success, 5 motives as beliefs about self-efficacy, and 6 motives as self-determination.

This is the perspective of behaviorism. When it comes to motivation, this perspective means minimizing or even ignoring the distinction between the inner drive or energy of students and the outward behaviors that express the drive or energy. The two are considered the same or nearly so. Certainly teachers see plenty of student behaviors—signs of motivation of some sort.

Operant conditioning as a way of motivating

If a student asks a lot of questions during discussions, for example, is he or she curious about the material itself or just wanting to look intelligent in front of classmates and the teacher? In a class with many students and a busy agenda, there may not be a lot of time for a teacher to decide between these possibilities. In other cases, the problem may not be limited time as much as communication difficulties with a student. That is where behaviorist approaches to motivation can help. The most common version of the behavioral perspective on motivation is the theory of operant conditioning associated with B.

Skinner , To understand this model in terms of motivation, think of the likelihood of response as the motivation and the reinforcement as the motivator. Imagine, for example, that a student learns by operant conditioning to answer questions during class discussions: each time the student answers a question the operant , the teacher praises reinforces this behavior. Many concepts from operant conditioning, in fact, can be understood in motivational terms.

The decrease in performance frequency can be thought of as a loss of motivation, and removal of the reinforcement can be thought of as removal of the motivator. Table 1 summarizes this way of reframing operant conditioning in terms of motivation. But there are nonetheless cautions about adopting this view. If a student looks at the teacher intently while she is speaking, does it mean the student is motivated to learn or only that the student is daydreaming? If a student invariably looks away while the teacher is speaking, does it mean that the student is disrespectful of the teacher or that the student comes from a family or cultural group where avoiding eye contact actually shows more respect for a speaker than direct eye contact?

Motivation: The Key to Academic Success

Students usually do know what they want or desire, and their wants or desires may not always correspond to what a teacher chooses to reinforce or ignore. As it happens, help with being selective and thoughtful can be found in the other, more cognitively oriented theories of motivation. As you might suspect, some goals encourage academic achievement more than others, but even motives that do not concern academics explicitly tend to affect learning indirectly.

What kinds of achievement goals do students hold? Imagine three individuals, Maria, Sara, and Lindsay, who are taking algebra together. Hers is a mastery goal, because she wants primarily to learn or master the material. Sara, however, is concerned less about algebra than about getting top marks on the exams and in the course. Hers is a performance goal, because she is focused primarily on looking successful; learning algebra is merely a vehicle for performing well in the eyes of peers and teachers. Lindsay, for her part, is primarily concerned about avoiding a poor or failing mark.

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Hers is a performance-avoidance goal or failure-avoidance goal, because she is not really as concerned about learning algebra, as Maria is, or about competitive success, as Sara is; she is simply intending to avoid failure. As you might imagine, mastery, performance, and performance-avoidance goals often are not experienced in pure form, but in combinations. If you play the clarinet in the school band, you might want to improve your technique simply because you enjoy playing as well as possible—essentially a mastery orientation.